The two traditional explosion consequence modeling techniques have been:
- Basic phenomenological models that are very cost-effective but provide very simplistic results
- Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques which provide great detail but are time consuming and can be prohibitively expensive
Many facilities are in need of a detailed explosion consequence modeling analysis to identify and mitigate explosion hazards, but require a moderate approach that can provide detailed damage and injury predictions without the high costs of CFD modeling.
For these facilities, BREEZE ExDAM can provide many of the benefits of CFD modeling with a much smaller commitment of time and money. ExDAM provides an intermediate complexity solution which is well-suited to modeling explosions of both vapor clouds and high explosives in environments where effects such as reflection and channeling are not expected to have a significant effect, but where shielding caused by structures and people may have an effect.
The model is relatively simple to use and understand in comparison to approaches such as CFD. Thus, while in no way a replacement for applications in which CFD modeling is required, ExDAM is accessible to a wider audience of safety professionals, first responders, etc. than CFD modeling. The ability of the model to correlate predicted overpressure and impulse into predictions of injury and damage adds to the potential utility of the model for these groups – impacts are translated into terms that can be readily understood by those without formal training in interpretation of overpressure and impulse data. However, some expertise is required to properly use the model, particularly when modeling vapor cloud explosions as these can be more difficult to quantify.
In addition to ExDAM, BREEZE offers Incident Analyst as another, more simplistic option for modeling explosions. BREEZE Incident Analyst calculates the blast overpressure created by vapor cloud explosions using the TNT Equivalency, TNO Multi-Energy, and Baker-Strehlow Multi-Energy models. These models incorporate scenario parameters such as proximity to ground level (ground reflection), density of obstacles, and vapor cloud flame speed. BREEZE Incident Analyst makes the conservative assumption of not modeling shielding from any specific structures, whereas BREEZE ExDAM provides advanced explosion modeling capabilities, including shielding and calculation of damage to structures and people.